Ammonia and CO2 Refrigeration Technologies 2021

Where: Macedonia, Europe
When: 16 September 2021 - 17 September 2021
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Due to the new wave of Covid-19, Delta variant, and still many restrictions, the conference organizing committee decided this IIR conference to be organized as an on-line event, September 16-17, 2021.

The registration fee is reduced, and the early registration fee is by August 10, 2021. 

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Bridging the gap between industry and academia, the 9th IIR Conference on Ammonia and CO2 Refrigeration Technologies will focus on the intensifying global trend towards using natural refrigerants, such as ammonia, carbon dioxide and hydrocarbons, in various refrigeration applications worldwide.

This conference will address the design of modern ammonia and new CO2 systems and technological innovations, improving energy efficiency as well as technical guidelines, environmentally friendly technologies and safety regulations.

Of those that exist today, ammonia and CO2 are two of the oldest refrigerants, with evidence of their use since the 19th century, and their unique technical properties has assured their continued exploitation centuries on.

The climate change is a global issue with catastrophic consequences which remind us almost every day. There are alarming projections of GHG emissions including HFCs. In Europe the Regulation No 517/2014 on F-gases has been introduced with many restrictions and gradually phase-down. The 28 Meeting of the Parties (in 2016) adopted an amendment to the Montreal Protocol for gradually phase-down of HFCs (from 2019 to 2047) to achieve 85% reduction. Recently, new HFC refrigerants (named HFOs) with low GWPs are appeared on the market.

The choice of refrigerant (and technology) has become a very complicated issue. In the RAC industry, confusion and uncertainties related to working fluids in many applications are continuing. In addition, there are many groups with diverging interests: chemical companies, manufacturers of equipment, distributors, users, environmental organizations, politicians and the public.

After several conversions CFCs -> HCFCs -> HFCs -> HFOs(?), the global trend towards using natural refrigerants is intensifying. There are very positive signals in Europe and some parts in the world where expanding use of ammonia, carbon dioxide and hydrocarbons in various applications is occurring. We will eliminate all uncertainties in the future regarding both Protocols and environmental regulations applying to natural refrigerants.

Of all refrigerants applied today, ammonia and CO2 are the oldest that have been used since the 19th century. The topics of the conference are: design of modern ammonia and new CO2 systems and technological innovations, improving energy efficiency, various applications, technical guidelines and safety regulations. It is very clear: by using more ammonia and CO2 refrigerants, we are employing environmentally friendly technologies.

The previous eight conferences were very successful, so we look forward to the 9th Conference on Ammonia and CO2 Refrigeration Technologies. Use the opportunity to see the beautiful city of Ohrid and Ohrid Lake!

Final program of the event


Faculty of Mechanical Engineering - Skopje
International Institute of Refrigeration

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