80 years of the polyurethane

80 years ago, Dr. Otto Bayer discovered polyurethane - a material that is used in the insulation of refrigerators, cold rooms and etc. Otto Bayer (November 4, 1902 in Frankfurt – August 1, 1982 in Burscheid) was a German industrial chemist at IG Farben who was head of the research group that in 1937 discovered the polyaddition for the synthesis of polyurethanes out of poly-isocyanate and polyol. He was a member of the board of directors and of the supervisory board of Bayer, and was also vice chairman of the supervisory board of Cassella in the 1950s. Otto Bayer was the 1975 recipient of the Charles Goodyear Medal. In 1940 in Leverkusen began the industrial production of polyurethane as stucco. In fact, until the 1960-ies of polyurethane foam, like many other polymers, has developed very slowly — but after the war, economic recovery and rapid post-war construction of commercial interest in polyurethane foams has greatly increased. Thus, by 1960, various companies have been cumulatively produced more than 50,000 tons of foam. Due to the variety of mechanical properties of different types, polyurethane is used in almost all fields of industry, for the manufacture of a variety of seals, elastic moulds for the manufacture of decorative stones, protective coatings, paint products, adhesives, sealants, low-power parts of machines (shafts, rollers, springs, etc.), insulators, implants and other products. However, the use of polyurethanes is significantly limited temperature range (from -60 to +80 °C). Also used in foam form, thanks to the fact that the number of reactions the creation of polyurethane accompanied by the release of gas. The use of polyurethane foams is very wide. As gladitator in household and commercial refrigerators, large freezers and transport refrigeration are applied rigid polyurethane foams. Another important application of rigid polyurethane foams as thermal insulation in pipelines, insulation of low temperature piping in the chemical industry, as thermal insulation, acoustic and waterproofing in the construction, capital repairs of warehouses, hangars, private houses, industrial plants, garages, insulation metal sandwich panels for construction of prefabricated buildings and cold stores.
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