The 35th Meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (MOP 35) took place from 23-27 October 2023 in Nairobi, Kenya. The delegates committed to address threats to both the ozone layer and the global climate, designating a significant portion of funding to reduce global temperatures.
In a historic decision, the largest ever replenishment of the Multilateral Fund (MLF) for the implementation of the Protocol was adopted USD 1 billion. This will assist developing countries in implementing their obligations under the Protocol and its Kigali Amendment, with a strong focus on shifting away from harmful greenhouses gases and substances with high global warming potential (GWP).
Despite the heavy agenda, progress was made on almost every item. However, agreement could not be reached on a decision to address quarantine and pre-shipment (QPS) uses of methyl bromide for which alternatives exist. Discussion on a potential roadmap to end illegal trade in controlled substances was deferred to the next meeting of the Montreal Protocol’s Open-Ended Working Group (OEWG).
In the final hours of the meeting, some delegations questioned the binding nature of contributions to the MLF. But, in a spirit of compromise, parties were able to take the historic decision to support developing countries in their efforts to transition away from hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs).
Parties also adopted decisions on substantive matters, including stratospheric aerosol injection, addressing the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on HFC baseline consumption for certain parties, energy efficiency, very short-lived substances, feedstock uses of methyl bromide, potential areas of focus for the 2026 quadrennial reports of the Protocol’s Assessment Panels, the import and export of prohibited cooling equipment, and further strengthening Protocol institutions, including for combating illegal trade.